Often, these groups use well-known medical or science personalities to spread anti-colloidal silver propaganda throughout the popular media. In other cases, they apparently work together to manipulate Google’s internet search engine results so that only negative articles about natural health topics such as colloidal silver appear at the top of the results.
In this article we’ll take a look at what some of the most prominent medical, science and clinical research experts in the world today have to say about colloidal silver and its usage. And in the process we’ll see why the so-called “skeptics” and “quack busters” are all-too-often truly the real charlatans…
Hi, Steve Barwick here, for www.TheSilverEdge.com...
In a previous issue, I wrote about Canada’s “Mr. Science,” Dr. Joe Schwarcz, who in a recent article in the Montreal Gazette has publicly decried colloidal silver usage as “quackery”…and who stated in that article, in no unequivocal terms, that colloidal silver simply doesn’t work in the human body. In his own words:
I also wrote about some of the interesting people and organizations with which Dr. Joe Schwarcz is infamously associated, including Lorne Trottier, who sits on the board of the notorious atheistic and anti-natural health “skeptics” group, CFI Canada…
Yes, folks. It’s true.
In this article, however, you’ll discover what some of the real medical, science and clinical research experts have to say about the many documented, infection-fighting benefits of colloidal silver and other silver-based remedies.
And you’ll see why natural health “skeptics” like Dr. Joe Schwarcz of Canada are dead wrong in their negative assertions against colloidal silver usage.
So let’s get started. Here’s an interesting quote from Dr. Kent Holtorf, M.D., of the Holtorf Medical Group, from his medical White Paper, “Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Oligodynamic Silver”:
This is usually done to treat acute and chronic infections including those associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM).
The effectiveness of the use of oral and intravenous colloidal silver in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia was presented at the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Environmental Medicine…
The extremely low level of colloidal silver used at 23 parts per million (ppm) has been shown to have little or no potential for toxicity while having the significant potential for clinical benefit.
The effectiveness of oligodynamic silver’s antimicrobial action at extremely low doses in combination with its potential immune stimulating actions, makes oligodynamic silver an ideal naturally occurring substance in the treatment of CFS and FM."
So, according to Dr. Holtorf -- a bona-fide and highly respected M.D. -- not only is colloidal silver effective in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia, it’s effective at such low levels there’s “little or no potential for toxicity.”
In other words, it’s about as safe as you can get. Hmmm. This Dr. Holtorf must be some kind of quack, right? Well, no. He’s actually the founder and medical director of Holtorf Medical Group, which specializes in innovative evidence-based therapies for hard-to-treat and poorly understood illnesses such as…
He received his doctorate of medicine from St. Louis University, with residency training at UCLA. He’s also the Endocrinology Expert for AOL Health. And he’s regularly featured as a medical expert in major magazines and on TV news, including Fox News and others.
So this must be some kind of anomaly, right? A bona-fide medical doctor who touts colloidal silver usage? Surely there aren’t any other bona-fide medical doctors who advocate for the use of colloidal silver.
Here’s another interesting quote on colloidal silver usage, this one from Dr. Jonathan Wright, M.D., a graduate of Harvard, as well as the University of Michigan Medical School, and who now runs the famous Tahoma Clinic in Washington state:
No matter how much a germ mutates, it can't change enough to escape the damaging effects of colloidal silver. And in the process, the silver doesn't harm human tissue or kill off the good bacteria in the intestine the way antibiotics and other medications do…
…Beginning in the 1970s, several independent researchers found that silver ions easily destroy Candida and other fungi. But it wasn't until a pilot study during the mid- 1990s that included human patients suffering from terminal AIDS that medical researchers established solid evidence showing just how quick and effective silver ions can be in the treatment of Candida as well as HIV.
In this study, nine individuals who were near death were divided into two subgroups. One group suffered from HIV and a terrible Candida infection. The other group suffered from both HIV and an extreme form of malnutrition (known as Wasting Syndrome).
The researchers found that in both groups the colloidal silver was capable of killing pathogens and purging the bloodstream of germ defenses in order to restore the immune system."
Do you think Canada’s “Mr. Science,” Dr. Joe Schwarcz, should have balanced out his anti-colloidal silver diatribe by quoting the views of someone like Dr. Jonathan Wright, M.D…a bona-fide medical doctor and Harvard graduate, who actually knows the medical science behind the use of colloidal silver, and who’s actually used colloidal silver in his clinical practice, and has personally witnessed its effectiveness first-hand?
Ahhh...I guess that's just too much to ask for. After all, I think we all know that fairness and balance is not even remotely a part of the equation when it comes to the propaganda efforts of "skeptics" and "quack busters."
Here’s another interesting quote on colloidal silver from a high-powered medical expert, Dr. Joseph Weissman, M.D., a board certified immunologist and Assistant Clinical Professor at the University of California Medical School:
I wonder if Dr. Weissman realizes how much trouble he could be in with the so-called "quack busters" and "skeptics," for holding the view that the entire general public should "have electrically generated silver in their home" for "antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal purposes"?
Well, truth be told, I don't think Dr. Weissman is too darned worried about their self-serving views. Do you?
Okay…that’s strike three for the quack busters and their ilk. Should I keep going? Ahh… why not? We’ll give them another chance or two. Here’s a quote from the Toxic Metals Research Program of the prestigious Dartmouth University. Surely they’ll agree with Canada’s “Mr. Science,” and decry silver as being horrifically unsafe and unfit for the human body. Let’s see:
Humans have evolved with efficient methods of dealing with that intake, however. Over 99 percent is readily excreted from the body.
Is silver harmful to humans? Unlike other metals such as lead and mercury, silver is not toxic to humans and is not known to cause cancer, reproductive or neurological damage, or other chronic adverse effects."
Oops…my bad! Obviously those guys over at Dartmouth are a bunch of snake oil peddlers, right? Ahhh…not so fast. Actually, the Dartmouth University Toxic Metals Research Program is known to be one of the best research programs of its kind…in the world.
Hmmm. That's strike four for the so-called "quack busters" and their ilk. Are you even allowed four strikes? Well, when you're dealing with the mentality that says natural health products and regimens are "quackery" and synthetic chemicals and drugs are "real medicine," you cut them a little slack by throwing them a few extra slow pitches, right?
Here’s a quote from a very popular best-selling health book written by two of the top natural health experts in the United States today, Dr. James F. Balch, M.D. and his wife, Phyllis A. Balch, CNC. Let’s see what they have to say about colloidal silver:
Blasphemy! You can’t say that, Dr. Balch. After all, it goes against the orthodox medical view.
Oh? What’s that you say? You are a medical doctor? Ahem! Excuse me, sir.
-- Physicians Guide To Natural Health Products That Work, by James Howenstine, M.D., pg 262
“Considerable clinical experience”? “Proven effective in patients with HIV”? “Quickly resolving pneumonias due to pneumocystis, streptococcal, staphylococcal, klebsiela and fungal infections”?
This must be some kind of mistake, right? Surely Dr. Howenstine is misconstruing Dr. Marcial-Vega’s clinical experience with colloidal silver. After all, this Dr. Marcial Vega sounds like some kind of charlatan, right?
Let’s see what the famous Health Science Institute had to say back in 2001 about Dr. Marcial-Vega’s clinical work with colloidal silver. Maybe they’ll set the record straight on this topic:
'We are constantly filtering all kinds of bacteria through our lungs,' explained Dr. Marcial-Vega. Normally, a healthy body is able to kill off any dangerous bacteria on its own. But in the case of illness, like pneumonia, or an especially lethal bacteria like anthrax, the body may need some extra help.
Colloidal silver may even be useful to treat cutaneous anthrax with the preparation being directly applied to the affected skin. Dr. Marcial-Vega says there are no concerns about using this treatment because colloidal silver has no toxicity and no side effects.
He has used the colloidal silver nebulizer treatments on infants, the elderly, and AIDS patients with pneumonia and has seen great results. All have responded quickly to the treatment even when no other approach seemed to help, and no one reported any adverse reactions."
Well, that proves it. This Dr. Marcial-Vega is clearly just another quack. A real snake oil salesman of the highest order, claiming to have cured all kinds of potentially deadly infections with colloidal silver.
Ahhh…once again…not quite. In fact, he’s a bona fide M.D. He interned at Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine. And he was an instructor at the Washington University School of Medicine from 1988 to 1990. What’s more, he was also a Clinical Assistant Professor at the University of Miami School of Medicine from 1990 to 1994.
Dang…maybe there really is something to this colloidal silver stuff, after all, huh? Dr. Marcial-Vega seems to think so. This is from the section of his web site titled “Colloidal Silver”:
Put 15 cc (two teaspoons) in the included receptacle, turn on the machine and breathe deeply and slowly for approximately 15 minutes or until all the liquid is gone. Repeat three times a day for colds, pneumonias, bronchitis and sinusitis.
If it makes you cough too much, add 20-30 grains of sea salt to the liquid just before nebulizing and shake.
This is a natural antibiotic that contains water and silver in a colloidal suspension. It is effective against bacteria, viruses and fungi.”
Well, there you have another well-known, licensed and bona-fide medical doctor and medical instructor with credentials out the ying-yang, affirming the benefits of colloidal silver usage.
Could all of these people possibly be quacks? Here’s another medical doctor who agrees that colloidal silver is a wonderful remedy for pneumonia-type illnesses:
Her internist can’t deny the improvement, but won’t attribute it to the silver, of course! It would have occurred anyway; the silver just happened to come on the scene at the right time. Uh-huh."
As Dr. Hine points out, among certain members of the orthodox medical community there seems to be a deep and abiding disregard for the use of antibacterial colloidal silver. Could it be they’ve read too many negative propaganda reports from the so-called “quack busters” and “skeptics” like Dr. Joe Schwarcz?
Fortunately, there are many, many more doctors like Dr. Hine who actually understand the science behind the substance, and who have witnessed with their own eyes the amazing healing benefits of colloidal silver.
Oh, shit…can you actually say that? After all, according to the FDA, there’s no evidence whatsoever that colloidal silver has any purpose in the human body, or is effective at doing anything.
So, says the FDA, absolutely nobody should be ingesting it for healing illnesses or diseases, or even for cleaning dead cells out their lymph glands!
So how can prestigious doctors, clinical researchers and scientists such as those above claim that colloidal silver is such a phenomenally beneficial healing substance? After alI, I thought you weren’t allowed to disagree with the FDA? Isn’t that against the law, or something?
Let’s try another expert, and see if we can find somebody who will actually agree with the so-called “quack busters” like Dr. Joe Schwarcz and assure us that colloidal silver use is unsafe:
All right, that just about does it! You just can’t say things like that, even if you are an M.D. and director of a well-known medical institute. It’s just not right, according to the FDA. After all, they and their “quack buster” followers have assured us that colloidal silver is “all risk and no benefit.”
Maybe an expert from the Center for Drug Research, and former director of a major city Poison Control Center, will set the record straight for us, once and for all times:
Entirely harmless? Are you kidding me? Surely the so-called “skeptic” groups and “quack busters” wouldn’t continue to assure us that colloidal silver is dangerously toxic, if it wasn’t so. Right?
Let’s see if we can find a more reasonable, orthodox view of colloidal silver and its safety and effectiveness. This time we’ll go to a medical practitioner with over 37 years of bona-fide medical practice…
…including a Hero in Medicine award from the Palm Beach County Medical Society, an Outstanding Service Award from the National Association of Medical Examiners…and former Board President of the Florida Osteopathic Medical Association.
Surely someone with such prestigious medical credentials and sterling character as Dr. Ron Surowitz, D.O., M.D., will finally set us straight on the use of colloidal silver.
I have my patients spray or swish Colloidal Silver in their mouths from one to three times daily, depending on the severity of their condition…or, in a dose of one quarter to one teaspoon, and even up to one tablespoon, one to three times daily for situations that are more problematic.
I also have them use it in small amounts daily as a preventative...It's interesting how many of my patients improve with the use of Colloidal Silver. It enhances the immune system where other antibiotics cause yeast overgrowth...
...[As an example] one patient had persistent yeast infections. Having had no success with both prescription and non-prescription treatments, she called me, at her wit's end.
I suggested that she try a douche of two teaspoons of Colloidal Silver in a quart of water. Three days later she was evaluated in my office. The symptoms of her yeast infection had vanished, and there was no visible sign of infection."
Are we starting to see a trend here, yet? I sure hope so. It sure seems like there’s a LOT of bona-fide medical, science and clinical research experts who believe colloidal silver usage is…well…beneficial as all get-out!
The colloidal silver particles provide a continuous source of these ions, yet the particles are not absorbed by the body tissue taken en masse in true solution by the body fluids; consequently, colloidal silver can be applied directly to delicate mucous membranes, such as those in the eye, with no irritation and with beneficial results...The colloidal particles diffuse gradually throughout the blood and give prolonged therapeutic action."
-- Robert J. Hartman, in his book, Colloid Chemistry
“Diffuse gradually through the blood”? “Give prolonged therapeutic action”?
Hmmm. The world seems to be full of quacks. So let’s keep looking. Surely if we continue to look hard enough we’ll find an expert who will get us back on track. After all, there must be someone out there who will stand with Canada’s “Mr. Science,” Dr. Joe Schwarcz, and verify for us the utter uselessness of colloidal silver. Let’s try a pharmacist:
Well, apparently you just can’t trust a pharmacist. Right? After all, they’re not medical practitioners. They’re just pill pushers.
So let’s ignore that quote, too, and see what a team of bona-fide clinical medical researchers have to say about colloidal silver:
Well, that oughta give the so-called “skeptics” and “quack busters” an ulcer or two, wouldn’t you say?
Alright. The “debunkers” keep striking out today. But let’s not give up. Instead, let’s continue our search for an expert who will agree with Canada’s “Mr. Science,” Dr. Joe Schwarcz, and assure us that colloidal silver usage is pure bunk.
This time we’ll go with a board certified clinical nutritionist. Surely a highly trained clinical nutritionist would know that colloidal silver is so worthless and so risky it has no place whatsoever in the human body, right?
Their worst nightmare is people taking colloidal silver to combat the H1N1 swine flu – the nightmare for them is that it might actually work.
…The high efficacy in the use of silver to kill bacteria and fungus is not in question by anyone. This does not mean it kills every type of bacteria or fungus. And in the ones it does kill it does not mean it kills all of them.
This is a far better risk/benefit profile than commonly used antibiotics."
Okay, fine. Nutritionists are all quacks anyway, right?
Just like those medical doctors, clinical researchers, pharmacists, chemistry experts and drug researchers we’ve been reading about above. All completely nutzo!
So let’s see what a bona-fide microbiologist – a professor from a major university, no less -- has to say. Surely he’ll tell us there’s no possible human use for colloidal silver:
Oh, oh. Did he just say colloidal silver may be used effectively “as an alternative to antibiotics”? Well, maybe ALL of these experts are quacks.
Let’s try a dentist. Surely a dentist would know that colloidal silver can’t possibly be helpful for treating disease conditions.
Well, that didn’t work out the way I thought it would. But I know if we just keep looking, we’ll find someone to back up the views of Canada’s “Mr. Science,” Dr. Joe Schwarcz, who swears colloidal silver is a useless sham.
Let’s try another medical doctor, this time a Board Certified M.D. with over 30 years of practice in internal medicine who runs his own medical institute and has hospital privileges. Undoubtedly he’ll back up the contention of the so-called “quack busters” and “skeptics” like Dr. Joe Schwarcz, and assure us that that colloidal silver usage is worthless:
Ionic silver is entirely non-toxic to the body...Reports of any pathogens developing resistance to ionic silver are rare. Some reports indicate it even kills drug-resistant strains of germs.
Ionic silver is also a powerful tissue-healing agent, so much so that it has been used topically for decades in burn centers and currently represents one of the fastest growing sectors – if not the fastest growing sector – in wound care today.
The fact that ionic silver is effective against a very broad range of bacteria is well established and, due to recent advances in the delivery of ionic silver together with the problems associated with antibiotics, it is being used in a rapidly growing range of dietary-supplement, medical, and industrial products.
...A study at the University of Arizona recently showed ionic silver to be effective against the coronavirus that researchers use as the surrogate for SARS."
Okay. Another quack, obviously. The world must be absolutely brimming over with them. But here’s a pair of well-known medical doctors who will surely let us know if colloidal silver is quackery, or the real deal. After all, their medical reputations are at stake:
Undoubtedly oligodynamic silver fits this bill...Emerging medical studies confirm the stellar, broad-spectrum virotoxic efficacy of oligodynamic silver both in vitro and in vivo.”
Wow…did they just say that both in the test tube and in the body (in vitro and in vivo), silver has proven itself to display broad-spectrum toxicity to disease-causing viruses? (See www.ColloidalSilverKillsViruses.com for more information on studies demonstrating colloidal silver to be effective against viruses.)
If it’s beginning to look to you as if the so-called “skeptics” and “quack busters” who constantly rail against colloidal silver usage don’t know what the heck they’re talking about…you’re absolutely right!
For example, the prestigious American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine also disagrees with Canada’s “Mr. Science,” Dr. Joe Schwarcz.
Let’s see what they have to say about colloidal silver usage:
"Often called the 'penicillin of alternative medicine,' colloidal silver disables the enzymes that bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi rely on to use oxygen. Unable to 'breathe,' the organisms die and are eliminated from the body.
While an antibiotic drug may kill several types of disease organisms, colloidal silver delivers the kiss of death to at least 650 disease organisms. In addition, colloidal silver can be taken over long periods of time because microorganisms cannot develop a resistance to it.
…Among the conditions colloidal silver has controlled are severe burns, acne, boils, candida and yeast infections, chronic fatigue syndrome, digestive problems and colitis, ear and sinus infections, herpes, shingles, lupus, malaria, viral and fungal infections, blood parasites, rheumatoid arthritis, and ringworm.
Colloidal silver also has been effective in treating cancer and AIDS if used at certain point in the disease cycle when infected cells have reverted to a more primitive way of using oxygen, however these uses of colloidal silver are not clinically proven.
...The recommended dosage of colloidal silver depends upon the concentration of the product you are using, which is expressed as "ppm" or "parts per million."
Concentrations range from 5ppm to 500ppm. In general, the greater the ppm the larger the colloidal silver particle size. This variable is important because it takes a smaller particle size to kill a virus vs. bacteria.
Colloidal silver can be taken internally in a small amount of distilled drinking water. It also can be applied topically to cuts and open sores and can be inhaled or sprayed using an atomizer."
-- The American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, Physician & Practitioner Administered Procedures and Therapies
Okay. I admit it. I’m stumped. I just can’t find anyone of any repute whatsoever who will agree with Canada’s “Mr. Science,” Dr. Joe Schwarcz, about colloidal silver. But wait. Here’s one. Since “Dr. Joe” used the topic of skin staining (argyria) as a means of scaring people away from colloidal silver usage in his article in the Montreal Gazette…
…let’s find out what a member of the New York Academy of Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, who happens to have some very in-depth scientific knowledge on this specific topic, has to say:
"...you should be advised that we recently completed an extensive review of the scientific literature on the safety of silver, especially as it relates to its one known potential side effect, namely, Argyria.
Argyia is an irreversible discoloration of the pigment (skin) caused by excessive silver intake or chronic exposure to silver by certain tissues. The amount of silver required to develop Argyria is estimated [by the EPA] to be 3.8 grams per day.
By comparison standard 10 ppm colloidal silver contains silver in amounts equaling less than 1 milligram of silver (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram; 1,000 milligrams - 1 gram)…
…which therefore represents an amount approximately 1/500th to 1/1000th of the amount of silver considered to be a risk in the development of Argyria.
Most cases of Argyria reported in the medical literature over the last 100 years involved chronic intravenous or intramuscular use of the silver preparations, most often involving a silver drug prescribed by physicians which in most cases contained silver nitrate.
Other cases of Argyria reported in the medical literature involve application of silver preparations used for many months or years in the treatment of the eye or vagina for certain diseases.
We could not locate a single case of orally consumed colloidal silver manufactured in the last 25 years causing Argyria in our review of the literature.
This is probably due to the low levels of silver contained in such preparations, since only very small amounts of silver are needed for its antiseptic effect.
Humans consume approximately 100 micrograms of silver every day in the diet. Additional amounts within this range would be considered safe by all reasonable estimates, especially if the amount needed to develop Argyria would be the equivalent of 380,000 micrograms (or 3.8 grams) of silver a day.
As for the efficacy of silver preparations, we found considerable scientific evidence published over the last 75 years that a number of silver compounds can be effective germicidal (antiseptic) agents against several hundred pathogenic organisms.”
-- Alexander G. Schauss, Ph.D., Emeritus member of the New York Academy of Sciences, member American Association for the Advancement of Science, former Chairman of the Food Policy Council of the National Council for Public Health Policy, member of the Government's Commission on Dietary Supplements
The Final Word…
As you can clearly see, there are a LOT of bona-fide science, medical and clinical research experts who have diametrically opposite views about colloidal silver usage and safety than those of Canada’s intrepid “Mr. Science,” Dr. Joe Schwarcz.
Of course, so-called "skeptics" like Schwarcz would probably not hesitate to label the above authorities as "quacks" and "charlatans" and "snake oil peddlers" since that's what they do with just about anyone who disagrees with their bought-and-paid-for views against nutritional supplements and natural health regimens.
In my humble opinion, the entire agenda of the so-called "debunkers" like Dr. Joe Schwarcz and their "quack busters" compadres is to use cleverly designed propaganda, combined with an aura of authority to confuse and befuddle the public into believing natural substances like colloidal silver are nothing more than "snake oil."
And they spend millions of dollars doing so – even in the face of knowing that huge numbers of their peers in the worldwide medical, science and clinical community completely disagree with them.
If you didn’t know better, you’d almost have to think these so-called “quack busters” are working behind-the-scenes for Big Pharma, or the big multi-national chemical corporations, or some other nefarious bunch.
But of course, we all know they’re just spending those millions of dollars out of their own pocketbooks and out of the goodness of their hearts, to “educate” the public about the nefarious hidden dangers of completely natural substances…
…while promoting the wondrous benefits of the chemical-laden foods, toxic chemical food additives and synthetic drugs brought to us by the big multi-national corporations behind Big Pharma and Big Farma.
So I’ll have to leave it to you, dear reader, to decide between “Dr. Joe’s” denigration of colloidal silver, and the expert opinions of the real-life scientists, medical doctors and clinical researchers cited throughout this article.
Do your own research. Conduct your own due diligence on colloidal silver and its usage. And decide for yourself who’s right and who’s wrong.
But always understand that there are paid mouthpieces out there who claim to have the “public interest” at heart, but who in reality are nothing more than paid shills for special interests like Big Pharma, Big Farma, and other huge multi-national commercial conglomerates…
…and who therefore have a vested financial interest in frightening the public into abandoning relatively safe and effective natural substances like colloidal silver, and instead, paying through the nose for synthetic chemical concoctions and drugs that are so very often toxic, unsafe and decidedly unnatural.
So the next time you run across an article by a public figure or celebrity of some type denouncing and denigrating the use of colloidal silver, don’t just accept the sensationalistic claims at face value.
Do yourself a favor and dig a little bit deeper like I did. You just might discover information that would lead you to believe the public figure is actually a paid propaganda mouthpiece hired because his aura of authority and skills at misdirection are exactly what his financial benefactors want from him.
More great information on colloidal silver coming in the next issue. Until then, I remain…
Yours for the safe, sane and responsible use of colloidal silver,
Steve Barwick, author
Important Note and Disclaimer: The contents of this Ezine have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Information conveyed herein is from sources deemed to be accurate and reliable, but no guarantee can be made in regards to the accuracy and reliability thereof. The author, Steve Barwick, is a natural health journalist with over 30 years of experience writing professionally about natural health topics. He is not a doctor. Therefore, nothing stated in this Ezine should be construed as prescriptive in nature, nor is any part of this Ezine meant to be considered a substitute for professional medical advice. Nothing reported herein is intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The author is simply reporting in journalistic fashion what he has learned during the past 17 years of journalistic research into colloidal silver and its usage. Therefore, the information and data presented should be considered for informational purposes only, and approached with caution. Readers should verify for themselves, and to their own satisfaction, from other knowledgeable sources such as their doctor, the accuracy and reliability of all reports, ideas, conclusions, comments and opinions stated herein. All important health care decisions should be made under the guidance and direction of a legitimate, knowledgeable and experienced health care professional. Readers are solely responsible for their choices. The author and publisher disclaim responsibility or liability for any loss or hardship that may be incurred as a result of the use or application of any information included in this Ezine.