Saturday, March 27, 2010

Can Silver Nanoparticles Stop AIDS Infections?

Can Silver Nanoparticles Stop AIDS Infections?

Excerpts From New Study Published in the Journal of Nanobiotechnology: Silver Nanoparticles “Exert Anti-HIV Activity At An Early Stage of Viral Replication”

The following text are brief excepts from a brand new study published in the prestigious Journal of Nanobiotechnology (published online January 20, 2010), in which it was demonstrated that “HIV infectivity is effectively eliminated following short exposure of isolated virus to silver nanoparticles.

In other words, the study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles can be used to stop the AIDS virus from infecting human cells.

What’s more, according to the study, silver nanoparticles inhibit HIV infection at concentrations that do not cause harm to human cells. And according to the study conclusions, drug-resistant strains of HIV are apparently just as vulnerable to the silver nanoparticles as non-drug resistant strains!

At the web site, I discussed an astonishing 2005 clinical study which was published in the very same journal, which also demonstrated the ability of silver nanoparticles to inhibit HIV replication.

This new study made has allowed researchers to gain several additional important insights into the mechanism underlying the HIV-inhibitory activity of silver nanoparticles. It is almost inevitable that this new information will serve as a basis for further research into using silver nanoparticles to stop AIDS infections.

Study Excerpts:

Here are some pertinent excerpts from this remarkable new study:

“Silver nanoparticles proved to be an antiviral agent against HIV-1, but its mode of action was not fully elucidated.

Is gp120 its principal target? Do silver nanoparticles act as entry inhibitors?

In this study, we investigated the mode of antiviral action of silver nanoparticles against HIV-1. Our results reveal, for the first time, that silver nanoparticles exert anti-HIV activity at an early stage of viral replication, most likely as a virucidal agent or viral entry inhibitor.

No significant difference was found in the antiviral activities of silver nanoparticles against the different drug-resistant strains (Table 1), so the mutations in antiretroviral HIV strains that confer resistance do not affect the efficacy of silver nanoparticles.

These results further agree with previous findings, where it was proven that silver nanoparticles are broad-spectrum biocides [30,31]

HIV-1 strains found in the human population can differ widely in their pathogenicity, virulence, and sensitivity to particular antiretroviral drugs [32]

The fact that silver nanoparticles inhibit such a varied panel of strains makes them an effective broad-spectrum agent against HIV-1. This particular property can reduce the likelihood of the emergence of resistance and the subsequent spread of infection.

… Silver nanoparticles proved to be virucidal to cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 as judged by viral infectivity assays (Figures ​(Figures33 and ​and4).4).

HIV infectivity is effectively eliminated following short exposure of isolated virus to silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticle treatment of chronically infected H9+ cells as well as human PBMC+ resulted in decreased infectivity.

… Silver nanoparticles act directly on the virus at steps that prevent integration inside the host cell, but further pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicological studies in animal models are needed to define safety parameters for the use of silver nanoparticles as preventive tools for HIV-1 transmission.

…Finally, we propose that the antiviral activity of silver nanoparticles results from their inhibition of the interaction between gp120 and the target cell membrane receptors. According to our results, this mode of antiviral action allows silver nanoparticles to inhibit HIV-1 infection regardless of viral tropism or resistance profile, to bind to gp120 in a manner that prevents CD4-dependent virion binding, fusion, and infectivity, and to block HIV-1 cell-free and cell-associated infection, acting as a virucidal agent.

In conclusion, silver nanoparticles are effective virucides as they inactivate HIV particles in a short period of time, exerting their activity at an early stage of viral replication (entry or fusion) and at post-entry stages. The data presented here contribute to a new and still largely unexplored area; the use of nanomaterials against specific targets of viral particles.

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Friday, March 26, 2010

3 Ways Colloidal Silver Stops Pathogens from Causing Infection

3 Ways Colloidal Silver Stops Pathogens from Causing Infection

Richard Davies and Samuel Etris of The Silver Institute, in a 1996 monograph entitled The Development and Functions of Silver in Water Purification and Disease Control, discuss three mechanisms of deactivation that silver utilizes to incapacitate disease causing organisms.

They are:

1.) Catalytic Oxidation
2.) Reaction with Cell Membranes
3.) Binding with the DNA of disease organisms to prevent unwinding (i.e., replication)

Catalytic Oxidation:

Silver, in its atomic state, has the capacity to absorb oxygen and act as a catalyst to bring about oxidation.

Atomic (nascent) oxygen absorbed onto the surface of silver ions in solution will readily react with the sulfhydryl (-S-H) groups surrounding the surface of bacteria or viruses to remove the hydrogen atoms (as water), causing the sulfur atoms to form an R-S-S-R bond; blocking respiration and causing the bacteria to expire.

Employing a simple catalytic reduction/oxidation reaction, colloidal silver will react with any negative charge presented by the organism's transport or membrane proteins and deactivate them.

Reaction with Bacterial Cell Membranes:

There is evidence that silver ions attach to membrane surface radicals of bacteria, impairing cell respiration and blocking its energy transfer system.

One explanation is based on the nature of enzyme construction: Specific enzymes are required for a given biochemical activity to take place. Enzyme molecules usually require a specific metallic atom as part of the molecular matrix in order to function. A metal of higher valance can replace a metal of lower valance in the enzyme complex, preventing the enzyme from functioning normally.

Silver, with a valance of plus 2, can replace many metals with a lower, or equal valance that exhibit weaker atomic bonding properties.

Binding with DNA:

Studies by C.L. Fox and S.M. Modak with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a tenacious bacteria that is difficult to treat, demonstrated that as much as 12% of silver is taken up by the organism's DNA.

While it remains unclear exactly how the silver binds to the DNA without destroying the hydrogen bonds holding the lattice together, it nevertheless prevents the DNA from unwinding, an essential step for cellular replication to occur.

In Simpler Terms…

So there you have it. Basically stated…

…Colloidal silver works against pathogens by oxidizing them, much as hydrogen peroxide does. Some researchers have referred to this as the creation of an “oxygen burst” when the silver particle comes into contact with the pathogen.

…Colloidal silver works against pathogens by attaching to the surface membrane, and disrupting the function of its energy transfer system while impairing respiration. Disrupted energy transfer and respiration means the pathogen simply cannot function. For all practical purposes it is “deactivated.”

…Finally, colloidal silver works against pathogens by binding with their DNA, preventing them from replicating – if they can’t replicate, they can’t infect.

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Thursday, March 25, 2010

4 Effective Ways to Use Colloidal Silver to Deal with Pesky Sinus Problems

4 Effective Ways to Use Colloidal Silver to Deal with Pesky Sinus Problems (Including Sinus Cough)

A reader recently wrote me, describing a persistent cough she has been battling after coming down with a cold. She wrote:

I have a cough that I can't get rid of. This is a dry cough that came on after a cold and I can't get rid of it. This usually happens to me every winter. This winter I thought I was going to finally go a winter without the cough, but it came on about 1 ½ weeks ago. Is there a way to inhale the silver so it gets into my lungs to help?

I replied:
It sounds to me like a sinus issue, rather than a lung issue. I can't know for sure, of course. And since I'm not a doctor, I can't diagnose your condition, nor "prescribe" for you what to do.

However, I get pretty much the same thing every year during cold and flu season, and it almost always happens directly after a nasty cold. I don't know why. But that's the way it happens. I've been to doctors about it repeatedly over the past three or four years, and in every case the doctor tells me, "It's your sinuses. They're dripping down the back of your throat, triggering your cough. You need to start using one of the over-the-counter anti-allergy medications in order to stop it."

Well, I won't do that because I don't like the side effects of allergy or sinus medications. But thankfully, based upon my research for The Ultimate Colloidal Silver Manual, I've found that there are four basic ways to get colloidal silver up into the sinus cavities and resolve the problem:

Method #1 -- Take an eye dropper (available in the pharmacy section of Wal-Mart) and fill it with colloidal silver. Lay on your back and then slowly, start dripping colloidal silver, drip by drip, into one of your nostrils allowing it to run down into your sinuses and down your throat. Once you let a full dropperful drip down into your nostril, do the other nostril. You may need to do this several times a day for a few days in order to notice the problem resolving.

This is probably the simplest method of resolving the sinus problem and related cough. But in my own personal experience it is not as effective as any of the other three methods below. So if that doesn't work for you, you might want to consider trying this:

Method #2 -- Go to the pharmacy section of Wal-Mart and purchase one of those little one-ounce or two-ounce nasal squeeze spray bottles full of saline solution that people use to spray a fine mist of saline solution up into their sinuses. They cost about a buck.

But what you're going to do when you get it home is grab the little nipple-nozzle and pull it right out of the bottle. Then dump the saline solution and wash the empty squeeze spray bottle out real good. Then rinse it out real good with distilled water.

Finally, fill it about half-way with colloidal silver (no more than halfway or it won't spray the fine mist you need) and put the little nipple-nozzle back in. Then start using it to spray a fine mist of colloidal silver up into your nostrils at least three or four times a day, while sniffing vigorously to get it up into the sinuses. That usually does the trick. But if not there's another method avid colloidal silver users use:

Method #3 -- Go to the pharmacy section of Wal-Mart and buy a small plastic pot with a long spout, called a "neti pot." The neti pot allows you to completely flush your sinuses. It usually comes with little packets of powder containing sea salt and baking soda.

Basically, you follow the directions that come with the neti pot, adding lukewarm water to the basin of the pot, while stirring in a packet of the powder. But you're going to add about a half ounce to an ounce of colloidal silver to the mix and make sure it's well stirred.

The general idea is to stand over a bathroom sink, lean forward, turn your head to one side, and insert the end of the long neti pot spout into one of your nostrils, and then literally start pouring the solution into your nostril. It will go straight to your sinus cavity, and then run out your other nostril. I know it sounds weird. But go to this web site and read more about using a neti pot and colloidal silver for sinus problems. Then follow the simple video instructions you'll find there on how to flush your sinuses using a neti pot.

Method #4 -- Finally, if all else fails, you can nebulize colloidal silver up into your sinuses. This is perhaps the most effective way ever devised of getting rid of sinus infections and related sinus problems, according to just about everyone I know who's used it (including myself).

It's a last resort for most people, because medical nebulizers are genrally hard to come by and they can be a bit pricey. Plus, they are considered to be medical devices, so most commercial outlets want a prescription from your doctor before they'll sell you one.

However, people often sell them on eBay. And you can easily pick one up for under $40 by going to eBay and using the eBay search engine. Just search under the term "Omron Nebulizer" (Omron is one of the top manufacturers of commercial nebulizers).

In case you don't know it, a nebulizer is a device generally used by asthmatics to get asthma medicine directly into their lungs. It has a small plastic well that usually holds about an ounce of liquid medication.

You simply fill the tiny plastic well with colloidal silver instead, and then turn the device on and it will rather quickly start turning the liquid colloidal silver solution into a very fine mist that closely resembles fog. Nebulizers have a spout through which the fog-like mist comes out, allowing you to lean forward toward the spout and gently inhale the mist into your lungs.

But when you're using colloidal silver in a nebulizer in order to deal with pesky sinus issues, you simply start inhaling the mist gently through your nostrils instead of through your mouth. That way the fine, fog-like colloidal silver mist coats your sinus cavities as you breathe it in.
Most people I know do this for anywhere from three to five minutes at a time, and then stop. You may have to do it several times throughout the course of the day, initially. But it doesn't take long to start healing your sinuses, and you can then judge how often you need to use it after that. For me, it generally knocks out a sinus problem (along with that irritating sinus cough) in two or three days, or less.

Okay, those are the four basic methods for using colloidal silver to deal with pesky sinus problems. Again, I'm not "diagnosing" or "prescribing." Just reporting what I've learned in the course of my research for The Ultimate Colloidal Silver Manual.

Be sure to let me know how it works out for you, should you decide to try any of these methods!

And please be sure to join the new Colloidal Silver Secrets Group on Facebook, where you can ask and answer questions about colloidal silver and its usage...participate in ongoing Discussion threads...learn about the latest ways to use colloidal silver...and much, much more!


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Wednesday, March 24, 2010

How Do We Know Colloidal Silver Actually Works?

How Do We Know Colloidal Silver Actually Works?

A skeptical visitor to the Colloidal Silver Secrets Group on Facebook recently asked, regarding colloidal silver, “So, what’s the evidence that this stuff actually works?”

Here’s my reply:

The evidence is overwhelming.

Medical Studies

For starters, read the medical study overviews on these two web sites:

Then read these articles about the effectiveness of colloidal silver in a serious lung infection as well as against fungal pathogens:

What the Experts Say

Then check out what doctors, medical researchers and other experts have to say:

Are all of these people just crazy? Or does colloidal silver and other silver based antimicrobials really work?

Why Would Municipal Water Suppliers and Even NASA Use Silver?

Then check out these articles on the use of electrically generated silver to kill pathogens in municipal water supply systems, as well as in the water supplies of the NASA and Russian manned space vehicles:

Why Is Big Business Now Using Silver?

You can read the article titled “Big Business Moves Into Silver-Based Antimicrobials in a BIG Way,” and ask yourself, if silver doesn’t work as an infection-fighting agent, why are all of these businesses investing millions of dollars in it?

Patents for the Use of Silver Against Infections

You can also do an internet search on patents having to do with silver and its usage. If you’re a careful researcher, you’ll find dozens of them, ranging from patents for:

…preventing the spread of HIV during sex using silver-based compounds

…using silver-impregnated catheters to prevent infections at catheter sites

…using silver-laced stockings to help severe diabetic patients prevent their leg ulcers from becoming infected

…using silver in house paint to help keep microbial populations inside the home down

…using silver in textiles such as countertops to help stop the spread of pathogens in hospitals, laboratories, office buildings, etc.

…and much, much more!


Finally, read these testimonials from dozens of satisfied colloidal silver users:

No Real Benefit?

I could go on and on. But I won’t. The proof is in the pudding.

I know there are critics out there who say silver has no real benefit.

But they’re either ignorant of all of the studies and the plethora of information now available, or they’re shills for the pharmaceutical industry whose job it is to cast aspersions on effective natural remedies.

Read the literature. Decide for yourself. If you actually read the literature without prejudice, you can only conclude that the evidence for silver as nature’s most powerful antimicrobial is overwhelmingly in its favor.

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Friday, March 19, 2010

Have NASA or the Russian Space Program Ever Used Colloidal Silver as a Water Disinfectant on Manned Space Flights?

A reader wrote and asked for documentation that the Russians use colloidal silver for water purification purposes on their manned space flights.

He stated:

“I keep coming across mention that the Russians used CS in their space craft as part of water purification. I'm trying to find any supporting documentation for this. Thanks, David”

Silver has not only been used by the Russian space program, but has also been used by NASA on manned space flights.

My original article on the topic of silver being used as a water disinfectant by both NASA and by the Soviets in their manned space programs is posted at this link:

The article is admittedly light on documentation, so here’s my more in-depth answer to the reader:

The Web Site Documents the Fact that NASA
Developed a Silver-Based Water Purification for Use in the Space Program

Here's an excerpt from an article I just found on the web site, discussing in-depth the silver-based water purification technology they developed for manned space flights. 

I think you’ll find it quite interesting. Based on this article, it looks like NASA has put quite a lot of effort into developing a silver-based water purification system:

“Over the past two decades, NASA and its contractors have conducted extensive research on how to assure pure water for manned spacecraft crews and how to recycle wastewater for reuse on future long duration spacecraft.

This work has given rise to a large number of spinoff products and products for cleansing and detoxifying water and in some cases inspired the formation of new companies to commercialize the technology.

Among the latter is Sensible Technologies, Inc. (STI), Irmo, South Carolina, a company formed in 1989 to exploit a particular NASA developed water purification technology known as silver ionization.

In this method, developed in the mid-1960s by Johnson Space Center, a small lightweight generator dispensed silver ions in the potable water supply of the Apollo spacecraft to kill bacteria in the water.

…because of the NASA technology we employ, our systems destroy waterborne bacteria and viruses, including Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium responsible for Legionnaire's Disease.”

Isn't that awesome? What it basically means is that NASA engineers actually invented the very first colloidal silver generator, for use in the Apollo space program!

Older News Reports…

In the course of my research on this subject, I’ve repeatedly seen references to an old mid-1970's news article titled, "Winged-Ferry to Shuttle Between Earth and Space,” supposedly published in the authorative The Silver Institute Letter back in March 1976. This article is also supposed to contain references to the use of silver-based water purification technology in NASA craft.

I searched today and found a copy of this old article on the Doulton Water Filter site. As you’ll see from this excerpt, it’s quite an interesting article:

Silver will be used in two functions that will provide Shuttle crews with pure water for drinking, air conditioning, food preparation and other operations. Water wastes will be recycled in Shuttle flight, and silver's first job will be to treat hydrogen-saturated water coming from Shuttle fuel cells; this water will pass through a tubular device of palladium and silver alloy; tube wails will be 10 mils (0.25 ram. or 0.01 in.) thick. Under pressure of 60 psi at a flow rate of 7 liters/hour, 85% of the hydrogen will diffuse out through the palladium-silver tube walls and be vented in the space vacuum outside the tubes. The device is made by Life Systems, Inc., 24755 High Point Rd. Cleveland, Ohio 44122.

From the silver-palladium tubes, water will flow to a purifying unit where silver will perform its second task. Less than an ounce of silver bromide in a cylinder less than 20 cm. (8 in.) long will eliminate bacteria, including Pseudomonas A and Type IIIA bacteria in 15 minutes or more, NASA scientists report. By establishing 100 parts of silver in a billion parts of water as hygienic for drinking in the Shuttle, NASA eliminates the need for the 1,000 to 1.500 ppb of chlorine generally used for purification. This compact, efficient water purifier is the Advance Prototype Silver Ion Water Bactericide System, made by Chemtric Inc., 9330 West Willams St., Rosemont, Illinois 60018.

Here's a excerpt from a copy of an earlier 1973 article, originally published in The Silver Institute Letter, on the use of silver for water purification purposes in Soviet space craft:

“Russian scientists working on water recycling and purification problems for the Soviet space ship and orbiting station program have decided on silver as the best long-term sanitizing agent.

Researching the problems of water storage over periods of several months, as well as purification for immediate use, they determined that ionized silver provides the safest and longest lasting method of transforming polluted waste in potable water.

A significant fact in support of their decision to use silver for purification was their experimental confirmation of the absence of toxicity in the silver treated water. In lengthy experiments on animals they found that 100 parts and 200 parts of silver per billion in drinking water does not accumulate in the organism and does not produce any detrimental effect on the functioning of the organs or systems of the experimental animals.

This was also confirmed by year long experiments on volunteer human subjects. The concentration of silver used in these tests…100 parts and 200 parts per billion…is in striking comparison with the 10 to 50 parts per billion of silver found in potable water and in swimming pools treated by silver purification systems in the United States.

The scientists, Drs.. S. V. Chizhov. S. P. Pak, N. N. Sitnikova and Y.U. Koloskova. tried many methods of purifying regenerated water but all except the silver system proved unsatisfactory over the long run. Ultra-violet rays and ultra-high-frequency sound reduced micro-organisms by as much as 97% but water thus treated failed to meet standards of acceptability if the water were stored for any considerable period of time.

Chlorine, which is widely used to kill bacteria, requires dosages in thousands of parts per billion compared to the 100 ppb and 200 ppb used in the Russian tests; the chlorine itself is a pollutant for certain water uses and it often is dangerous to store or handle.

In sum, the Russians found silver to be the safest sterilizing agent, stable,and long-lasting.”

More Documentation…

On page 117 of the book Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines, by the National Acadamies Press, you'll find this reference, which very briefly documents that fact that "biocidal silver" is used in the Russian MIR spacecraft as well as on the International Space Station:

"METHODS FOR DEVELOPING SPACECRAFT WATER EXPOSURE GUIDELINES FIGURE A-1 The Mir humidity condensate water-reclamation system, which is planned for the early phases of the International Space Station. On the ISS, this system will be located in the service module of the Russian segment. Source: Modified from Pierre et al. (1996). stream of the multifiltration bed is used to determine whether the water is of acceptable quality Biocidal silver (0.05-0.20 milligrams per liter [mg/L]) also is added here for microbial control. Conditioned water is heated (pasteurized) to 85°C by a heat pump (regenerative heat exchanger) and stored in a heated accumulator. Hot water is available to the crew directly from the accumulator; cold water is provided by rerouting the hot water through the regenerative heat exchanger (Samsonov 1996a)."

[Use the "Search This Book" function to find the four citations in the above book, regarding the use of silver on the MIR and International Space Stations.]

Even More Documentation…

Here's an article from the respected, discussing the silver-based and iodine-based water purification systems now being used on the International Space Station, as well as in U.S. and Russian manned spacecrafts.

Basically, it says that on the International Space Station the Russians still use a silver-based water purification system, while Americans now use an iodine-based water purification system. And scientists have developed a new piece of technology the astronauts and cosmonauts can use to check their water supply to make sure they contain adequate amounts of silver or iodine.

And More…

What’s more, in an online document by Duane L. Pierson, of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston TX, as published in Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin [14(2) June 2001], the author states in regards to potable drinking water on the International Space Station:

"Silver, at approximately 500 ppb, is used as the residual disinfectant in Russian water supplies whereas US water supplies use 2 to 4 ppm iodine for water disinfection."

Apparently, the Russians still use silver because they’re worried about excessive levels of iodine in the water causing thyroid problems for their cosmonauts. But the U.S. apparently switched over to using iodine, because of reports of people turning “blue” from drinking colloidal silver.

We haven’t seen any blue cosmonauts in the news lately, so maybe the NASA fears are a bit overblown.

The Evidence is Clear

The bottom line is that, yes, both the NASA and Russian space missions have developed and used silver-based water purification systems in order to keep drinking water from becoming bacterially contaminated on those long manned space flights.

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